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February 17, 2022

The decades after the Civil War saw Black Americans slowly gain more economic and political power in some parts of the country. Some bought land, started businesses and built schools. But in many places where Black Americans succeeded, white Americans sought to destroy that success. While some of the stories may have been scrubbed from the records and textbooks throughout history, survivors and their descendants are speaking out, shedding light on the violent events that took place in their communities and exposing the lingering social and economic damage caused by some of the worst racial violence in American history.

0:00 Intro
0:50 The civil war and reconstruction
4:09 Red Summer
5:20 Elaine Massacre
13:56 Tulsa Massacre
22:06 Effects of Tulsa and Elaine massacres
26:36 Lingering effects today
28:48 Reparations and justice

The pins seen on the map in this story mark just some of the more well-documented attacks on Black Americans from the Civil War into the early to mid 1900s. It is by no means a complete list. There are likely many others that have been forgotten and covered up. Further, this list does not include the thousands of lynchings or lesser known white supremacist attacks on Black Americans and their communities.

List of massacres and other assaults on Black communities 1863-1943:

1863: Detroit, Michigan
1863: New York City, New York
1866: Memphis, Tennessee
1866: New Orleans, Louisiana
1866: Pine Bluff, Arkansas
1868: Opelousas, Louisiana
1868: St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana
1868: Camila, Georgia
1869: Jackson County, Florida
1896: Polk County, Arkansas
1870: Tuskegee, Alabama
1870: Eutaw, Alabama
1871: Meridian, Mississippi
1873: Colfax, Louisiana
1874: Coushatta, Louisiana
1874: Vicksburg, Mississippi
1874: Eufaula, Alabama
1876: Hamburg, South Carolina
1876: Ellenton, South Carolina
1875: Clinton, Mississippi
1887: Thibodaux, Louisiana
1898: Wilmington, North Carolina
1901: Pierce City, Missouri
1906: Atlanta, Georgia
1908: Springfield, Illinois
1910: El Dorado, Arkansas
1910: Slocum, Texas
1917: Chester, Pennsylvania
1917: East St. Louis, Illinois
1919: Charleston, South Carolina
1919: Chicago, Illinois
1919: Corbin, Kentucky
1919: Elaine, Arkansas
1919: Washington D.C.
1919: Longview, Texas
1919: Omaha, Nebraska
1919: Knoxville, Tennessee
1919: Ellisville, Mississippi
1919: Wilmington, Delaware
1919: Laurens County, Georgia
1919: Jenkins, Georgia
1919: Baltimore, Maryland
1920: Ocoee, Florida
1921: Tulsa, Oklahoma
1922: Perry, Florida
1923: Rosewood, Florida
1927: Little Rock, Arkansas
1943: Beaumont, Texas

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