The decades after the Civil War saw Black Americans slowly gain more economic and political power in some parts of the country. Some bought land, started businesses and built schools. But in many places where Black Americans succeeded, white Americans sought to destroy that success. While some of the stories may have been scrubbed from the records and textbooks throughout history, survivors and their descendants are speaking out, shedding light on the violent events that took place in their communities and exposing the lingering social and economic damage caused by some of the worst racial violence in American history.
0:00 Intro 0:50 The civil war and reconstruction 4:09 Red Summer 5:20 Elaine Massacre 13:56 Tulsa Massacre 22:06 Effects of Tulsa and Elaine massacres 26:36 Lingering effects today 28:48 Reparations and justice
The pins seen on the map in this story mark just some of the more well-documented attacks on Black Americans from the Civil War into the early to mid 1900s. It is by no means a complete list. There are likely many others that have been forgotten and covered up. Further, this list does not include the thousands of lynchings or lesser known white supremacist attacks on Black Americans and their communities.
List of massacres and other assaults on Black communities 1863-1943:
1863: Detroit, Michigan 1863: New York City, New York 1866: Memphis, Tennessee 1866: New Orleans, Louisiana 1866: Pine Bluff, Arkansas 1868: Opelousas, Louisiana 1868: St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana 1868: Camila, Georgia 1869: Jackson County, Florida 1896: Polk County, Arkansas 1870: Tuskegee, Alabama 1870: Eutaw, Alabama 1871: Meridian, Mississippi 1873: Colfax, Louisiana 1874: Coushatta, Louisiana 1874: Vicksburg, Mississippi 1874: Eufaula, Alabama 1876: Hamburg, South Carolina 1876: Ellenton, South Carolina 1875: Clinton, Mississippi 1887: Thibodaux, Louisiana 1898: Wilmington, North Carolina 1901: Pierce City, Missouri 1906: Atlanta, Georgia 1908: Springfield, Illinois 1910: El Dorado, Arkansas 1910: Slocum, Texas 1917: Chester, Pennsylvania 1917: East St. Louis, Illinois 1919: Charleston, South Carolina 1919: Chicago, Illinois 1919: Corbin, Kentucky 1919: Elaine, Arkansas 1919: Washington D.C. 1919: Longview, Texas 1919: Omaha, Nebraska 1919: Knoxville, Tennessee 1919: Ellisville, Mississippi 1919: Wilmington, Delaware 1919: Laurens County, Georgia 1919: Jenkins, Georgia 1919: Baltimore, Maryland 1920: Ocoee, Florida 1921: Tulsa, Oklahoma 1922: Perry, Florida 1923: Rosewood, Florida 1927: Little Rock, Arkansas 1943: Beaumont, Texas
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